You may think it's so you can enjoy the summer weather - but you would be wrong! The long summer holiday started when education became compulsory for children. Before the 1870 Education Act children the government did not fund schools. Children did not have to go to school - or be educated at home. Many worked long hours in factories, coal mines, or on the land. There was a lot of opposition to the Education Act because families said they needed the income their children brought home, without that extra money many families said they would be homeless, or simply starve.
Schools in Victorian England
At the start of Queen Victoria's Reign few children went to school, and they grew up unable to read or write. Church Registers (records) of marriages show that only half of the people who married could sign their names!
The government did not run any schools. Some people ran schools in their homes. Larger schools, called Charity Schools were built and run by wealthy people who wanted children to learn about God and Jesus. Children needed to be able to read to read the Bible and learn from it.